An important current question in neuroimaging concerns the sample sizes required for producing reliable and reproducible results. Recent findings suggest that brain-wide association studies (BWAS) linking neuroimaging features with behavioural phenotypes in the general population are characterised by (very) weak effects and consequently need large samples sizes of 3000+ to lead to reproducible findings. A second, important goal in neuroimaging is to study brain structure and function under disease conditions, where effects are likely much larger. This difference in effect size is important. We show by means of power calculations and empirical analysis that neuroimaging studies in clinical populations need hundreds -and not necessarily thousands-of participants to lead to reproducible findings.

(missing reference)