Health-care systems are rolling out artificial-intelligence tools for diagnosis and monitoring. But how reliable are the models?

Each day, around 350 people in the United States die from lung cancer. Many of those deaths could be prevented by screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans. But scanning millions of people would produce millions of images, and there aren’t enough radiologists to do the work. Even if there were, specialists regularly disagree about whether images show cancer or not. The 2017 Kaggle Data Science Bowl set out to test whether machine-learning algorithms could fill the gap.

Sohn, E. 2023. The reproducibility issues that haunt health-care AI. Nature 613, 7943, 402–403.